Rectal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells create in the tissues of the rectum; colorectal cancer appears in the colon or rectum. Adenocarcinomas contain the vast majority (98%) of the colon and rectal cancers; rarer rectal cancers involve lymphoma (1.3%), carcinoid (0.4%), and sarcoma (0.3%).
The occurrence and epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and screening advice are common to both colon cancer and rectal cancer.
Most people who are identified with rectal cancer have a type called adenocarcinoma. There are other unusual tumor types too. These other types of rectal cancer may be medicated differently than adenocarcinoma. The section of this guide on the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer mention primarily to adenocarcinoma.
The large majority of rectal cancer is adenocarcinoma. This is a cancer of the cells that line the inside surface of the rectum.
Carcinoid tumors start in hormone-generating cells in the intestines.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be a type of soft tissue sarcoma that can be developed anywhere in the gastrointestinal area but is rare in the rectum. These tumors can also be other types of sarcoma that begin in the blood vessels or connective tissue of the colon.
Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system. It more commonly begins in the lymph nodes but can start in the rectum.
About 5 to 10 percent of people get colorectal cancer because of particular mutations in the genes that are passed from parents to children, which are introduced to as hereditary. MSK’s experts may provide you genetic testing to see if you have hereditary mutations in your genes that can increase your cancer risk. Whether you should have this testing is based on a judgment of your personal risk. Learn more about genetic testing for colorectal cancer and the types of hereditary conditions that frequently lead to the disease.
Rectal cancers are into one of five possible stages (stage 0 through stage 4).
Stage 0. Cancer cells on the area of the rectal lining (mucosa), sometimes within a polyp
Stage I. Tumor increasing below the rectal mucosa, sometimes penetrating into the rectal wall
Stage II. Tumour increasing into or through the rectal wall, sometimes extending and growing on or sticking to tissues next to the rectum
Stage III. Tumour invading lymph nodes next to the rectum, as well as organize and tissues outside the rectal wall
Stage IV. Tumour expand to a distant organ or lymph nodes distant from the rectum
Requires a medical diagnosis
Colorectal cancer symptoms based on the size and location of cancer. Some commonly knowledgeable symptoms insert changes in bowel habits, changes in stool consistency, blood in the stool and abdominal discomfort.
People may experience
Pain areas: in the abdomen
Gastrointestinal: blood in the stool, change in bowel habits, constipation, narrow stools, or passing excessive amounts of gas
Whole-body: anemia or fatigue
Also common: abdominal discomfort or weight loss
Cancer of the colon or rectum, situated at the digestive tract's lower end.
Early cases can start as non-cancerous polyps. These frequently have no symptoms but can be detected by screening. For this reason, doctors advised screenings for those at high risk or over the age of 50.
Colorectal cancer treatment depends on the size, location and how far cancer has expanded. Common treatments insert surgery to remove cancer, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The list inserts generic and brand names.
Drugs accepted for Rectal Cancer
Avastin (Bevacizumab), Camptosar (Irinotecan Hydrochloride), Cetuximab, Cyramza (Ramucirumab), Eloxatin (Oxaliplatin), Erbitux (Cetuximab), Bevacizumab, Capecitabine