Liver Cancer

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Know more about Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer

The largest organ (internal) in our body is Liver. It is located under the ribs on its right side just below the right lung, and has two lobes. More than just one class of primary type of liver cancer re registered in medical records, both primary and secondary type. But what is the liver cancer definition? Primary liver cancer in adults is the disease where the cells start growing in the liver tissue (malignant). To understand liver cancer, it is useful to know about the types, stage, causes and symptoms of the liver cancer.

Liver cancer Symptoms and types

Liver cancer is the type of malignant tumor that originates in the cells that form the liver such as hepatocytes, bile ducts or blood vessels, being generally quite aggressive. Liver Cancer symptoms that usually arise in the more advanced stages of the disease and include pain in the abdomen, dizziness, loss of appetite, weight loss and yellow eyes. People with liver fat, liver cirrhosis or who use anabolic agents are at greater risk of developing this cancer. The most common signs and symptoms that may arise in liver cancer are:

  • Abdominal pain, especially on the right side

  • Abdominal swelling

  • Weight loss for no apparent reason

  • Loss of appetite

  • Excessive tiredness

  • Yellow skin and eyes

  • Constant dizziness.

Liver cancer can be primary when it appears directly in the liver, or it can be secondary, by metastasis or spread of cancer from other organs such as lungs, stomach, intestine or breast. The most common Liver Cancer types are,

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - The most common form of liver cancer in adults.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma – This type of liver cancer begins in the small bile ducts cells which stays inside the liver. 

Angiosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma - Rare cancers that originate in the cells that line the blood vessels of the liver. 

Hepatoblastoma - Hepatoblastoma is a rare type of liver cancer that occurs in children, usually those under 4 years of age. 

Staging of liver cancer and causes

Usually, the stage of liver cancer is determined based on the results of the medical examination, biopsies, and imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI, etc.). The Liver Cancer stage range from stage I (1) to IV (4). Liver cancer staging system is various depending on basic clinical intervention. The most frequently used staging system TNM system. This common system is used globally to determine the stage of liver cancer. 

T - How big has grown cancer? 

N - Does the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes?

M - Has cancer spread to distant lymph nodes or distant organs?

The Liver Cancer causes are not clear. However, DNA mutations can cause changes in these instructions. As a result, cells can start to get out of control and eventually form a tumor. Factors that increase the risk of primary liver cancer include the following:

  • C virus or hepatitis B Chronic infection 

  • Cirrhosis

  • Certain hereditary liver diseases

  • Diabetes

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver

  • Aflatoxin exposure

  • Excessive alcohol consumption

Treatment and general medicines

The Liver Cancer treatment is performed with surgery and chemotherapy, depending on the size and severity of each case, and the chances of it being cured are greater when the tumor is identified early, in more early stages. Treatments are 

  • Surgery for liver cancer

  • Ablation for liver cancer

  • Embolization therapy for liver cancer

  • Radiation therapy for liver cancer

  • Targeted therapy for liver cancer

  • Immunotherapy for liver cancer

  • Chemotherapy for liver cancer

Unfortunately, these symptoms usually arise when the cancer is already advanced. So when there are risk factors such as excessive alcohol consumption or liver disease, it is important to make regular consultations and observe the alterations that may arise. Therefore, in most cases, Liver Cancer Generic Medicines are used such as Cabozantinib, Cyramza, Keytruda, Lenvima, Nexavar, Nivolumab, etc.